Hard scientific evidence of the effects of diet, pharmaceutical drugs & lifestyle on health from over 1,400 studies from research centers, universities and peer reviewed scientific journals.

My aim is to make this website the No: 1 worldwide go to place to access the actual scientific papers on the subjects of statins, cholesterol and saturated fat.

Research by David Evans

Saturday, 4 July 2015

Statin use is associated with weight gain and a large increase in diabetes

This study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association International Medicine 2014 Apr 24
Study title and authors:
Different Time Trends of Caloric and Fat Intake Between Statin Users and Nonusers Among US Adults: Gluttony in the Time of Statins?
Sugiyama T, Tsugawa Y, Tseng CH, Kobayashi Y, Shapiro MF.
Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles2Department of Public Health/Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan3Depa.
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763487

This study examined the effects of statins on caloric intake, weight gain and diabetes. The study lasted eleven years and included 27,886 adults, 20 years or older, who completed a 24-hour dietary recall.

The study found over an 11 year period:
(a) The caloric intake of statin users increased by 9.6%.
(b) The caloric intake of non users DECREASED by 1.9%.
(c) The BMI of statin user increased by 1.3
(d) The BMI of non users increased by 0.5
(e) Diabetes increased by 7.8% in statin users.
(f) Diabetes DECREASED by 0.4% in non users.

This study shows statin use is associated with weight gain and a large increase in diabetes.

Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Irlen Syndrome associated with significantly decreased cholesterol levels

This study was published in Perceptual and Motor Skills 2003 Dec;97(3 Pt 1):743-52

Study title and authors:
Plasma cholesterol levels and Irlen syndrome: preliminary study of 10- to 17-yr.-old students.
Sparkes DL, Robinson GL, Dunstan H, Roberts TK.
University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW, Australia.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14738334

Irlen Syndrome is a perceptual processing disorder. It is not an optical problem. It is a problem with the brain’s ability to process visual information.

This study investigated various health markers in children and teenagers with Irlen Syndrome. The study included 13 subjects with Irlen Syndrome who were compared with a group of 16 age- and sex-matched controls.  

Regarding cholesterol, the study found that cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the Irlen Syndrome group compared to the control group.

Thursday, 25 June 2015

From a fish tank injury to hospital haemodialysis: the serious consequences of statin drug interactions

This paper was published in BMJ Case Reports 2015 Jun 23;2015
Study title and authors:
From a fish tank injury to hospital haemodialysis: the serious consequences of drug interactions.
Hill FJ, McCloskey SJ, Sheerin N.
Renal Department, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
This paper can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106178

This paper describes the case of a man who suffered acute kidney injury following statin-induced rhabdomyolysis.

(i) A 68-year-old man was admitted to hospital with severe acute kidney injury secondary to statin-induced rhabdomyolysis.
(ii) Five weeks previously, the patient started a course of clarithromycin for infection of a finger wound. His current medications included simvastatin, which he continued along with clarithromycin.
(iii) The severity of the acute kidney injury necessitated initial continuous venovenous haemofiltration followed by 12 haemodialysis sessions before a spontaneous improvement in renal function occurred.

Hill concluded: "Statins are widely prescribed and we report this case to encourage increased vigilance in avoiding drug interactions known to increase the risk of statin-induced myopathy, including macrolide antibiotics, calcium channel antagonists and amiodarone".

Monday, 22 June 2015

Low cholesterol associated with Fragile X syndrome

This study was published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A 2015 Feb;167A(2):379-84
Study title and authors:
Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome.
Berry-Kravis E, Levin R, Shah H, Mathur S, Darnell JC, Ouyang B.
Departments of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, USA; Departments of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, USA; Departments of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, USA.
This paper can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424470

Dr Elizabeth Berry-Kravis notes that Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioural dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features.

Dr Berry-Kravis found that during the course of follow up of patients with FXS she noted that many patients had low cholesterol levels and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

She then initiated a systematic review of all cholesterol values present in charts from over 500 patients with FXS and revealed that total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all significantly reduced in males with FXS compared with normal levels.

Dr Berry-Kravis findings reveal that low cholesterol levels are associated with Fragile X syndrome.

Thursday, 18 June 2015

Low cholesterol levels are associated with depression

This study was published in the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 2014 Apr;36(2):129-33

Study title and authors:
A controlled study of serum lipid profiles in Indian patients with depressive episode.
Patra BN, Khandelwal SK, Chadda RK, Ramakrishnan L.
Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24860211

This study analysed the influence of cholesterol levels in depressive patients. The study included 30 depressive patients and 30 healthy matched control subjects.

The study found:
(a) The cholesterol levels of  depressive patients was 18% lower than the cholesterol levels of healthy controls.
(b) The LDL cholesterol levels of  depressive patients was 26% lower than the cholesterol levels of healthy controls.

Patra concluded: "Lower levels of serum cholesterol are associated with depressive disorder".

Sunday, 14 June 2015

Saturated fat helps to preserve cartilage

This study was published in Cartilage 2013 Oct;4(4):321-8
Study title and authors:
Monounsaturated and Saturated, but Not n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Cartilage Destruction under Inflammatory Conditions: A Preliminary Study.
Bastiaansen-Jenniskens YM, Siawash M, van de Lest CH, Verhaar JA, Kloppenburg M, Zuurmond AM, Stojanovic-Susulic V, Van Osch GJ, Clockaerts S.
Department of Orthopaedics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069676

This study investigated whether the most common fats found in synovial fluid influence cartilage deterioration in patients with osteoarthritis. Cartilage was obtained from osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (knee replacement). Chondrocytes (cells found in cartilage) or cartilage explants were cultured with linoleic (n-6 polyunsaturated fat), oleic (monounsaturated fat), or palmitic (saturated fat).

The study found that:
(a) Polyunsaturated fat increased prostaglandin-E2 production. (Prostaglandin-E2 is proinflammatory).
(b) Saturated fat and monounsaturated fat inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene expression. (Matrix metalloproteinase-1 is proinflammatory).
(c) Saturated fat and monounsaturated inhibited glycosaminoglycan release. (Glycosaminoglycan provides the structural properties of cartilage, thereby higher glycosaminoglycan release indicates an increase in cartilage matrix degradation).

The results of the study indicate that polyunsaturated fat  has a pro-inflammatory effect on cartilage whereas saturated fat and monounsaturated fat seem to inhibit cartilage destruction.

Bastiaansen-Jenniskens concluded: "These results indicate that altered fatty acid levels may influence loss of cartilage structure in osteoarthritis".

Wednesday, 10 June 2015

Statin use associated with a 340% increased risk of acute memory loss

This study was published in JAMA Internal Medicine 2015 Jun 8
Study title and authors:
Statin Therapy and Risk of Acute Memory Impairment.
Strom BL, Schinnar R, Karlawish J, Hennessy S, Teal V, Bilker WB.
Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey
This study can b accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054031

The objective of the study was to assess whether statin users and users of other cholesterol lowering drugs show acute decline in memory compared with nonusers. The study lasted 26 years and included 482,543 statin users, 482,543 matched non users of any cholesterol lowering drugs and 26,484 users of non statin cholesterol lowering drugs.

The study found:
(a) Statin users had a 340% increased risk of acute memory loss within 30 days immediately following exposure compared to non users.
(b) Non statin cholesterol lowering drug users had a 260% increased risk of acute memory loss within 30 days immediately following exposure compared to non users.

Strom concluded: "Both statin and nonstatin lipid lowering drugs were strongly associated with acute memory loss in the first 30 days following exposure in users compared with nonusers".